Cabbage is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower, Brussel sprouts and Savoy cabbage.

  • Northern region

    1 September - 31 October
  • Southern India

    1 June - 31 July
Cabbage is a good source of protein which carries all necessary amino acids, mainly sulphur containing amino acids.
Cabbage is a good source of protein which carries all necessary amino acids, mainly sulphur containing amino acids.

Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea var. capitata

Family: Brassicaceae


  1. It is a small, leafy biennial and it produces a dense globular mass of crincled and smooth leaves which are wrapped over each other known as head.

  2. Generally the outer leaves are larger than the inner ones.

  3. The stems are short and stout.

  4. Flowering of the plants generally happens after winter.

  5. There leaves are low in carbohydrates, calories and fat.

  6. It is a good source of protein which carries all necessary amino acids, mainly sulphur containing amino acids.

  7. It is an excellent source of minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium & phosphorus.

  8. The flavor which we get in cabbage is because of glycoside sinigrin. It carries goitrogens which causes enlargement of thyroid glands.


  1. It can be grown in an extensive range of environment conditions.

  2. But the most suitable climate for its growth is cold moist.

  3. For seed germination the ideal temperature should be between 22-26°c and the ideal temperature for its growth is 25.2-34.2°c.

  4. In most of the cultivars the growth is arrested when the temperature goes above 43.2°c.

  5. For the growth of cabbage the minimum temperature required is above 0°c.

  6. It has been reported that if for 7-9 weeks they get a cold treatment at 4-10°c, the plant bloat sooner and flower more copiously than when they are exposed to this temperature for a short period.

  7. Plants must pass juvenile phase, before this temperature treatment.


Cabbage can be grown in a wide range of sandy to heavy soils.
Cabbage can be grown in a wide range of sandy to heavy soils.


  1. Cabbage can be grown in a wide range of sandy to heavy soils.
  2. In light soils, cultivars grow well.

  3. On heavy soils, maturing ones perform better.

  4. Well drained soil gives larger yields.

  5. For Cabbage cultivation, the ideal pH range of soil should be between 6.0-6.5.

  6. The plants show die back of dark foliage and leaf margins and they become more susceptible to diseases like black leg in saline soils.


  1. By giving 4-5 plowings with an adequate interval between two plowings, the field should be plowed to fine tilth.

  2. For proper leveling, planking should be done.

  3. Depending on the climate and soil conditions the transplanting should be done on the ridges, flat land or in furrows.

  4. Ridge method is useful especially in rainy areas at the time of planting for early planting.

  5. Planting in furrows and in dry areas transplanting on flat beds is recommended in saline soils.


  1. In India, seed sowing time varies in different parts.
  2. For summer crop, seeds are sown in the month of May- June in high hills.
  3. The hilly areas which get heavy rains, the autumn and summer crop are rather restricted and sowing is done in autumn to harvest them in early summer in late spring by over watering them.
  4. For late cultivars, Sowing in situ or in seedbed in the plains of Northern India starts from starting of August till November.
  5. In the areas of southern hills except in the western and southern peninsular, sowing is delayed where by selecting proper cultivars the crop can be grown almost full year.


The seed required is about 200-500 g/ha.


  1. According to the variety, planting season and soil conditions, planting system may vary.

On the basis of maturity of varieties the following distances are normally recommended.

  • Early maturity varieties- 45 x 45 or 60 x 30cm

  • Mid Varieties- 60 x 45cm

  • Late Varieties- 60 x 60cm or 75 x60cm.


 Some of the varieties of Cabbage are Golden acre, Pusa Drum Head, Pusa Mukta, Pusa Synthetic, Midseason Market, September Early, Early Drum Head, Late Large Drum Head, K-1.

Maturity Period of Cabbage is 90-120 days
Maturity Period of Cabbage is 90-120 days


  1. The dose of the fertilizer depends upon the soil fertility and the quantity of organic manure applied on the crop.

  2. Around 4 weeks before transplanting, 15-20 tonnes of well decomposed FYM are integrated into the soil for a good yield.

  3. For adequate yield, application of 80-120kg N, 60-100kg P2O5 and 60-120kgK2O is suggested.

  4. At the time of transplanting, half of the dose of N and the entire amount of P and K is given.

  5. At the time of earthing up or six weeks after transplanting the balance of N is given.


  1. Just after transplanting of seedlings first irrigation is given.

  2. Depending upon the soil conditions and season, at an interval of 10-15 days consecutive irritations are given.

  3. From the head formation time to the head maturity period, proper care should be given to avoid water stress.

  4. Excess irrigation at the time of crop maturity will cause splitting of heads.


  1. After planting, the cabbage is ready to harvest in 90-120 days.

  2. When the heads are mature and firm, Cabbage should be punctually harvested.

  3. Harvest should not be delayed, even few days beyond maturity results in increased incidence of field disease and split heads.

  4. Harvesting of immature heads will reduce yield and the heads are very sensitive to with stand handling damage.

  5. As compared to mature heads, immature ones have shorter shelf life.

  6. By bending it on one side and cutting it with a knife, the head is harvested.

  7. The stalk should cut flat and as near to the head as possible, yet it should be long enough to preserve 2-4 wrapper leaves.

  8. By snapping or twisting the heads should not be removed because it will damage the head and will result in uncertain stalk length.

  9. Before packing, the harvested produce should always be stored in shades.


  1. Yield varies depending on the maturity group, variety and season of cultivation.

  2. From early varieties average yield obtained is 25-30 t/ha.

  3. From late varieties average yield obtained is 40-60t/ha.


FactCheck in Agriculture Project

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