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A Brief Guide to Horticulture – Classification, Features and Career Options

Horticulture is one of the most important sectors in Agriculture. It consists of fruits, flowers, spices, etc. It has the most expanding and growing market in India.

Aayush Chowdhury

What is Horticulture?

Horticulture is the discipline of agriculture that deals with all types of cultured plants directly used by man for food, Health remedy purposes and aesthetic reason. In easy words, it is cultivation, production and marketing of vegetables, fruits, flowers, herbs or exotic plants. The term Horticulture is obtained from the Latin words hortus (garden) and cultūra (cultivation)..


  • Pomology:  Deals with the Planting, harvesting, storing, processing, and marketing of fruit and nut crops.

  • Olericulture: Related with Producing and marketing vegetables.

  • Arboriculture: Study, selection and care of individual trees, shrubs or other perennial woody plants.

  • Ornamental Horticulture: It has two divisions-

  • Floriculture: Production, use and marketing of floral crops.

  • Landscape Horticulture: Production and marketing of plants used to beautify the outdoor environment.

Features of Horticulture in India:

Horticulture sector has become one of the major expanding markets of growth as it gives more benefit than the agricultural sector (food grains).

The sector provides more employment possibilities across primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of Agriculture.

Horticulture crops, fruits are hardier to change in harsh weather conditions and the vegetables exponentially increase the income of small and marginal farmers.

Water usage demand is very low here, drastically reduce the risk of crop failure or loss and it can be occurred in smaller farms too.

More number of crops are planted simultaneously to get more yield and to use the maximum of the organic fertilizers and the crop field remains full of nutrients.

This sector enables the population to eat a diverse and balanced diet for a healthy lifestyle and helps to maintain the Ecological Balance.

It became a key factor for economic developmental growth in many of the states in India where Division of Horticulture of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)  is playing a vital role.


Career Options and Opportunities in Horticulture

There are many opportunities in this sector:

Corporations: Agriculturists from this field can seek employment in Warehousing

Corporation, Food Corporation, State Farm Corporation and National Seed Corporation (NSC).

Estates and tea gardens: There are adequate opportunities in estates and tea gardens which also offer great benefit.

Agricultural Engineering: This sector deals with conservation of soil and water, power, agricultural machines, and farm structures. Engineering graduates can venture into this field.

Agriculture Management: Students having knowledge of management and agriculture are in demand for this industry and can venture into estates and tea gardens.

Agro-industry Sector: This sector covers dairy processing, meat packaging, grain processing, fats and oils, production, fibers, pesticides and other such products. There is scope for great research in this field and also requires sales and promotion, technologists, scientists, as well as in production of Agro-products.

Services Sector: This field revolves around fertilizers, seeds and chemicals at reasonable price and also to provide quality food products and can generate big amount of revenue.

Self-employment: From other industries graduates can start his/her own business such as agriculture product shops, agri-base industry, etc.

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