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Greenhouse Farming: Types of Greenhouses, Features and Cost Analysis

Greenhouse farming is referred to as the process of cultivating crops in a greenhouse ecosystems environment. Here is the complete guide to all types of greenhouses, their features, and costs.

Shivani Meena

Greenhouses are inflatable structures with transparent covering that are used to produce crops in a controlled environment. Greenhouse cultivation and other forms of controlled environment cultivation have emerged to generate ideal microclimates in which crop production can take place all year or portion of the year as needed.

Greenhouses as well as other controlled environment plant production technologies are linked to the off-season production of high-value ornamental plants and foods in cooler environments when outdoor production is not viable. 

The temperature has traditionally been the most important environmental variable to regulate, with heat being used to counteract the extreme cold. Environmental control, on the other hand, might include cooling to reduce high temperatures, light management (shading or adding extra light), carbon dioxide levels, relative humidity, water, plant nutrients, and insect control. 

Classifications of Greenhouses: 

Below is the Classification Based on Suitability & Cost which is very helpful for any individual who wants to do Greenhouse Farming. 

Low cost or Low tech Greenhouse 

A low-cost greenhouse is a basic building made of locally accessible materials like bamboo and timber. The cladding materials are made of ultraviolet (UV) film.

There is no specialized control device for managing environmental conditions within the greenhouse, unlike conventional or high-tech greenhouses. However simple techniques are used to increase or decrease temperature and humidity. Even the intensity of light can be lowered by using shading materials such as nets. During the summer, the temperature can be lowered by opening the side walls. 

Medium tech Greenhouse 

Due to the minimal investment, greenhouse users prefer a manually or semi-automated control system. Galvanized iron (G.I) pipes are used to create this type of greenhouse. With the help of screws, the canopy cover is attached to the framework. To withstand wind disturbance, the entire construction is firmly attached to the ground. The temperature is controlled by exhaust fans with controls. Evaporative cooling pads and misting systems are also used to keep the greenhouse at a comfortable humidity level. 

High tech Greenhouse 

To overcome some of the challenges of a medium-tech greenhouse, a hi-tech greenhouse has been developed in which the complete equipment, which controls the environmental conditions, is assisted to operate automatically.

Cost involved in Greenhouses 

  • Low-cost greenhouse with no fan and pad of Rs.300 to 500/m2

  • Medium-cost greenhouse with pad and fan system, costing between Rs.800 and Rs.1100 per m2 without automation

  • Expensive greenhouses with fully automated control systems costing between Rs.2000 and Rs.3500 per m2

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