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Regional and Improved Varieties of Ber in India

India's diverse ber cultivars offer high yields, excellent taste, pest resistance, and climate adaptability, helping farmers achieve optimal growth and quality produce.

Shreetu Singh
Check out the varieties of ber found in India (This image has been created with MidJourney)
Check out the varieties of ber found in India (This image has been created with MidJourney)

Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana), commonly known as Indian jujube, is a resilient and versatile fruit crop extensively grown across India, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. India boasts over 125 varieties of ber, though only a few are commercially significant. These include Umran, Banarsi Karaka, Mundia, Seb, Gola, and Kaithali. Each region in India cultivates specific varieties, tailored to local climates and consumer preferences. Here, we explore notable ber cultivars, highlighting their unique characteristics and benefits. Read On.

Key Varieties and Their Regional Cultivation


  • Early Varieties: Gola, Safeda, Kaithli, Sanaur-5, Umran

  • Mid-Season Varieties: Selected Safeda, Muria Mahara, Sandhura Narnaul, Banarsi Karaka

  • Late Varieties: Seo, Chonchal


  • Early Varieties: Shamber, Gola, Mehrun, Umran

  • Late Varieties: Kaithali


  • Early Varieties: Nazuk, Noki, Seo, Banarsi, Dandan, Umran, Illachi

  • Mid-Season Varieties: Sandura Narnaul, Kaithali, Sanaur-2, Pathani

  • Late Varieties: Rohataki Gola, Walaiti, Thornless, Selected Safeda


  • Early Varieties: Gola, Seb, Seo, Jogia, Mundia, Katha

  • Mid-Season Varieties: Goma Kirti, Tikadi Maharwali

  • Late Varieties: Bagwadi

Uttar Pradesh:

  • Early Varieties: Narma Varanasi, Banarsi Kadaka

  • Late Varieties: Jogia, Aliganj


  • Early Varieties: Gola, Mundia

  • Mid-Season Varieties: Murhara, Banarsi

  • Late Varieties: Gola Pewandi


  • Early Varieties: Gola

  • Mid-Season Varieties: Meharun, Kaithali

  • Late Varieties: Ajmeri, Chameli, Randeri

Tamil Nadu:

  • Early Varieties: Gola, Kaithali

  • Mid-Season Varieties: Banarsi, Umran

Andhra Pradesh:

  • Early Varieties: Gola, Kaithali

  • Mid-Season Varieties: Umran

Notable Varieties Descriptions

Banarasi Karaka: A tall, vigorous tree reaching 8-12 meters. The leaves are green, elliptic to ovate, and the fruit is globose and oblong, measuring 5.2 x 3.0 cm.

Banarasi Prolific: An excellent variety from Uttar Pradesh, it is widely grown for its large fruits, weighing 25.2 grams with 95.2% pulp content, yielding about 110 kg per tree.

Chhuhara: A semi-tall tree with spreading branches. Leaves are ovate oblong with serrated margins. The fruit is ovate oblong, 2.9 cm long and 2.1 cm thick, weighing 6.8 grams.

Gol: This variety features a spreading tree with cordate, broad leaves. The fruit is nearly round with a flat styler end, early maturing, and measures 3.8-3.5 cm.

Goma Kirti: A high-yielding variety with a 25.8-38.2% increase in yield. It has excellent keeping quality, with only 12% weight loss compared to 27% in early maturing varieties. It is less prone to fruit fly and borer attacks and has a higher shelf life of 6 days.

Kaithli: A medium, bushy tree with straight thorns. Leaves are ovate with serrated margins. The fruit is ovate oblong, 3.37 cm long and 1.9 cm wide, weighing 6.22 grams.

Meharun: Popular in Gujarat and Maharashtra, it bears small fruits (2.44-1.98 cm) with an average weight of 5.2 grams. The fruit is oval, with a smooth yellow to light brown skin, and sweet taste. It has a high pulp percentage of 87.30% and is resistant to fruit fly.

Nazuk: A semi-tall tree with a round top and fewer thorns. The fruit is elliptic oblong, weighing 10.5 grams.

Sanaur 2: Similar to Sanaur 5 but slightly less sweet with 19% TSS.

Sanaur 5: A seedling selection known for its large, oblong, smooth fruits with golden yellow skin, and a TSS of 20-21%. It yields 150-200 kg per tree and ripens in the second half of March.

Sandhura Narnaul: An erect tree with light green, broad leaves and an obtuse apex. The fruit is oval, oblong, measuring 4.45 x 2.10 cm.

Seo: A spreading tree with ovate oblong leaves. The fruit is round, crab apple-shaped, measuring 3.47-2.92 cm.

Thornless: Erect-growing trees with oval leaves and subacute apex. The fruit is oblong and slightly pointed, measuring 4.7 x 3.1 cm.

Umran: Known for heavy production, the fruit is large and oblong, weighing 32.5 grams, with thick skin and 96.45% pulp. Average production is 150-200 kg per tree.

Improved Varieties

Thar Sevika: Developed from a cross between Seb and Katha, Thar Sevika is an early-maturing ber cultivar. It yields 30-32 kg per tree, making it ideal for farmers seeking early returns.

Thar Bhubharaj: Selected from local materials in Bhusavar, Rajasthan, Thar Bhubharaj yields 30-36 kg per tree. Its fruits are very juicy and sweet, with a TSS of 22-23%, suitable for fresh consumption and processing.

Thar Malti: Thar Malti offers high yields of 65-70 kg per plant, with each fruit weighing 20.32 grams. Rich in vitamin C and antioxidants, it is frost-tolerant and has a semi-erect growth habit. The fruits are greenish-yellow, less thorny, and suitable for both table use and processing.

CAZRI Ber 2018: Released by ICAR-CAZRI in 2018, this variety matures early and yields 61 kg per plant under rainfed conditions. The greenish-yellow fruits weigh 19.26 grams each and are high in vitamin C.

Goma Keerthi: Developed by ICAR-IIHR, Goma Keerthi matures three weeks earlier than Umran. It yields 35.6 kg per plant and is resistant to fruit borer, fruit fly, and drought, making it suitable for distant markets due to its excellent keeping quality.

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