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What is Ecological Farming? Meaning, Principle and More!

Modern innovation and research are combined with a concern for the environment and biodiversity in ecological farming. Read this article to know the meaning, principles, and benefits of ecological farming.

Sonali Behera
Ecological farming guarantees healthy farming and nutritious food for today and tomorrow by safeguarding soil, water, and climate
Ecological farming guarantees healthy farming and nutritious food for today and tomorrow by safeguarding soil, water, and climate

The ultimate objective for those who support sustainable agriculture is ecological farming, sometimes known as eco-farming. Although ecological farming and organic farming are not the same, they have a lot of similarities and are not necessarily incompatible.

So, What Exactly is Eco or Ecological Farming?

Ecological farming guarantees healthy farming and nutritious food for today and tomorrow by safeguarding soil, water, and climate. It encourages biodiversity and doesn't introduce chemicals or genetically modified plant species into the ecosystem. The term "ecological farming" refers to a broad variety of agricultural and animal management methods that seek to:

(1) Boost earnings and yields

(2) Make the most sustainable use of the region's natural resources, and

(3) Reduce the need for outside assistance.

Principles of Eco-Farming

1. Food Sovereignty

One of the guiding principles of eco-farming is food sovereignty, which is concerned with who and how food is produced. The authority to create, distribute, and consume food is given to those who do so.

Food sovereignty acknowledges women as the backbone of rural communities as well as the historical role women have had in harvesting seeds and spreading seeds as biodiversity stewards. It provides farmers, communities, and individuals the ability to establish their food systems.

2. Rewarding Rural Livelihoods

Ecological farming helps rural communities thrive and reduce poverty by offering jobs that are secure, healthy, and profitable.

3. Improved Food Yields and Production

We must decrease the unsustainable use of the food we already produce, as well as food waste, meat consumption, and land usage for bioenergy, to boost the global food supply and improve the livelihoods in poorer places.

Where necessary, higher yields must be obtained by ecological measures.

4. Biodiversity

The diversity of nature from the seed to the plate and throughout the agricultural system is a major focus of ecological farming.

It focuses on enhancing the flavor, nutrition, and culture of the food we eat to improve diets and health.

5. Sustainable Soil

By minimizing the use of chemical fertilizers and inputs and adopting eco-farming practices, soil fertility may be increased.

By practicing ecological farming, soils are shielded from erosive forces, pollution, and acidification.

6. Ecological pest management

Ecological farming enables farmers to manage pests without the use of pricey chemical pesticides, which can impact our ecosystems, water supplies, and soil, as well as the health of farmers and customers.

Unfortunately, industrial farming relies heavily on herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides in order to flourish, endangering both human health and the environment.

7. Food Adaptability

Resilience, which is fostered by ecological farming, enhances agriculture and helps our food system successfully adjust to shifting climatic and economic conditions.

The greatest method to shield communities from climate and food price shocks is through diverse and resilient agriculture, as opposed to monoculture crops.

Ecological Farming Methods

Biodynamic Farming

  • In 1924, Rudolf Steiner pioneered biodynamic farming.

  • In this method, which adopts a holistic perspective, the farm is considered a living entity.

  • Using any inputs on the farm is prohibited by biodynamic farming.

  • The use of cover crops and animal manure are two other techniques for increasing soil fertility.

  • Homeopathic remedies are commonly used by farmers to treat the soil, plants, and compost.

  • When they carry out farming operations like sowing, they also take into account the cycles of nature.


  • It was created by David Holmgren and Bill Mollison in Australia in the 1970s.

  • Farmers utilize permaculture to produce productive ecosystems with the same diversity, resilience, and stability as natural ecosystems in a variety of agricultural settings.

  • In reality, permaculture requires less upkeep while simulating plant development in natural settings.

Fukuoka Farming/ Natural Farming

  • It is founded on the ideals of Masanobu Fukuoka.

  • Rather than employing traditional farming practices, farmers engage with natural cycles and processes.

  • Fukuoka farming is anti-till and weeding, and it doesn't utilize fertilizers or pesticides.

  • One characteristic of this kind is the use of clay seed balls, an old practice in which crop seeds were combined with humus or compost and rolled into clay balls.

Benefits of Ecological Farming

The advantages of ecological farming:

  1. Ecological farming assures that all people will have access to nutritious food in the future and gives communities the power to feed themselves.

  2. Ecological farming conserves water and natural ecosystems, improves soil fertility, protects against erosion and degradation, and lowers greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Ecological farming is an approach for both coping with and mitigating climate change. Ecological farming offers a variety of methods for reducing climate change, including large-scale carbon sinks. Additionally, the best method for adjusting agriculture to changing climatic circumstances is farming with biodiversity. It is a tried-and-true farming practice to mix several crops and kinds in one field to boost resilience to irregular weather variations.

  4. By utilizing natural resources such as biodiversity, nutrient cycling, soil regeneration, and natural pest enemies and incorporating these resources into agroecological systems that assure food for everyone now and future, ecological farming both relies upon and preserves nature.

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