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All About Agricultural Practices in Rajasthan

The most basic and essential requirement for agriculture is “water”! Life on this planet started with water and can end without it. Does this mean the regions with water scarcity don’t have scope for farming? No! With the correct use of the limited water available and adjustable techniques, farming can be performed in dry regions as well.

Kritika Madhukar
Irrigation is the agricultural process of applying controlled amounts of water to land
Irrigation is the agricultural process of applying controlled amounts of water to land

Rajasthan & its farming methods are a perfect example of making the best out of given resources. Rajasthan practices limited water-based agriculture, here are a few examples and details about these methods.

Walora or Jhumming

It is the form of cultivation in which on a tract of land trees are cut to roots and burnt so as to provide fertility to the soil after using the land for 5-6 years it loses its fertility so the same process is carried out on another tract of land. This is also called shifting cultivation which is followed in the humid tropic regions of Sub- Sahara Africa & South America.

Crops grown out of this method are maize, millets, rice, potato, pumpkin, castor, cotton, etc.

Dry Farming

Also known as Dryland Farming, in this, the cultivation of crops is carried out without irrigation in regions of limited moisture, typically less than 20 inches (50cm) of precipitation annually.

This kind of farming is practiced in areas that are characterized by a cool wet season (which stores the water in the soil to be used after harvesting) followed by a warm dry season. Crop examples are wheat, corn, rye, beans, millets, tomatoes etc.

Irrigated Farming

This depends on both surface water and groundwater to support crop production. Irrigation is the agricultural process of applying controlled amounts of water to land for it to help in the yielding of crops, as well as to grow landscape plants & lawns.

Crops harvested through this kind of agriculture are maize, sugarcane, fruits & berries, etc.

Mixed Farming

The type of farming that involves both the growing of crops & raising of livestock is called mixed farming. These farms are moderate in size and grow arable crops. Here the dung from the livestock may be used to fertilize the crops as well.

Many farmers in Rajasthan & Northern India follow this farming method. Where they grow crops like wheat and also raise cattle. Examples of these crops would be wheat, barley, oat, rye, etc. 

These methods have been working well for Rajasthan by making it the largest harvester of wheat and largest producer of bajra, rapeseed, mustard & wool. Whether it is an arid region like Rajasthan or a wet one like Assam with the right intentions and smart techniques farming or life can grow anywhere!

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