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Lumpy Skin Disease Hits India: Know The Symptoms, Treatments, & Vaccines

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious viral disease that has spread in different Indian states. Here are the symptoms, treatment options, and vaccines.

Vivek Singh
Lumpy Skin Disease among cattle (Photo Courtesy: @SamajwadiUsa/Twitter)
Lumpy Skin Disease among cattle (Photo Courtesy: @SamajwadiUsa/Twitter)

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious viral disease that primarily affects cattle. It is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the Capripoxvirus genus. Lumpy skin disease is characterized by the formation of nodules or lumps on the skin and mucous membranes of infected cattle. In the last couple of weeks, 1284 cattle got infected with lumpy skin disease in Pune district, 238 in Maharashtra, 15+ cattle died in Surat village due to lumpy skin disease and thousands of cattle got infected in Uttar Pradesh.

Lumpy Skin Disease Symptoms In Cattle

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease that primarily affects cattle. It is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which is a member of the Capripoxvirus genus. The disease is characterized by a range of clinical symptoms in cattle. Here are some common symptoms of lumpy skin disease in cattle:

  1. Skin Nodules: The most distinctive feature of lumpy skin disease is the appearance of firm, raised nodules or lumps on the skin. These nodules can vary in size from small pea-sized lumps to larger, more irregularly shaped masses. They are often painful and can be found on various parts of the body, including the head, neck, back, and limbs.

  2. Fever: Infected cattle may develop a fever, which is often one of the early signs of the disease. Elevated body temperature is a non-specific symptom and can be indicative of various infections.

  3. Decreased Milk Production: Lumpy skin disease can lead to a reduction in milk production in affected cows. This is of particular concern in dairy cattle, as it can result in economic losses for dairy farmers.

  1. Loss of Appetite: Cattle with LSD may experience a decreased appetite, leading to weight loss and reduced overall health.

  2. Swelling of Lymph Nodes: Enlargement of lymph nodes, particularly those near the affected areas of the body, can occur in infected cattle.

  3. Nasal and Ocular Discharge: Some cattle may exhibit nasal discharge and discharge from the eyes, often accompanied by conjunctivitis.

  4. Lameness: In severe cases, lumpy skin disease can cause lameness in cattle, especially when the nodules form on the legs.

  5. Respiratory Signs: Infected cattle may display respiratory signs such as coughing or labored breathing, though these are less common.

  6. Reduced Fertility: In bulls, lumpy skin disease can lead to reduced fertility and temporary infertility.

Lumpy Skin Disease Treatment In Cattle

Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is a viral disease that primarily affects cattle. It is caused by the Lumpy Skin Disease virus (LSDV), a member of the Capripoxvirus genus. There is no specific antiviral treatment for LSD in cattle, so management and prevention are crucial to control the disease's spread and mitigate its impact on affected animals. Here are some key steps in managing LSD in cattle:

  1. Quarantine and Isolation: Affected animals should be promptly isolated from the rest of the herd to prevent the spread of the disease. A quarantine area should be established to house infected cattle.

  2. Supportive Care: The focus of LSD management is on providing supportive care to affected animals. This includes:

  • Maintaining good nutrition and hydration: Ensure that infected cattle have access to clean water and appropriate nutrition to help them maintain their strength and immune response.

  • Treating secondary infections: Cattle with LSD may develop secondary bacterial infections. Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat these infections.

  • Pain relief: If cattle experience significant discomfort or pain due to the skin lesions, pain management medications may be administered under the guidance of a veterinarian.

  1. Vector Control: LSD is primarily spread by blood-feeding insects, such as certain types of flies. Implementing effective vector control measures, such as using insecticides, fly traps, and keeping cattle in screened areas, can help reduce the risk of transmission.

  2. Vaccination: Vaccination is an essential tool in preventing LSD. Various LSD vaccines are available in affected regions, and vaccination should be carried out as part of a comprehensive disease control strategy. Consult with a veterinarian to determine the appropriate vaccination schedule for your herd.

  1. Biosecurity Measures: Implement strict biosecurity measures to prevent the introduction of the virus to your farm or the spread within your herd. This includes controlling animal movement, disinfecting equipment, and practicing good hygiene.

  2. Reporting and Surveillance: In areas where LSD is a concern, report any suspected cases to veterinary authorities for surveillance and control efforts. Early detection and reporting can help prevent the disease from spreading further.

Indigenously Developed Vaccine To Control And Eradicate The Lumpy Skin Disease, Says Parshottam Rupala

On December 29, 2022, an agreement was made in Nagpur to produce vaccines for Goat Pox and "Lumpi-ProVac." Notable figures, including Union Minister Parshottam Rupala and Maharashtra's Chief Minister, were present. The agreement acknowledges the efforts of the ICAR in creating the indigenous vaccine Lumpi-ProVac for Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) control. It aims to facilitate large-scale production of the Goat Pox vaccine to support India's livestock sector. The Goat Pox vaccine currently helps manage Lumpy Skin Disease and has proven effective. Rupala emphasized the importance of this technology and urged prompt manufacturing to benefit farmers in fighting the disease.

The Lumpi-ProVacInd vaccine, a safe and effective live-attenuated vaccine for Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV), was granted commercial production rights to the Institute of Veterinary Biological Products in Pune, under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India. This vaccine triggers a specific immune response in animals, providing complete protection against LSDV for approximately one year. Notable figures, including Union Minister Parshottam Rupala and Chief Minister Eknath Shinde, celebrated the successful technology transfer, anticipating its significant contribution to controlling Lumpy Skin Disease. Agrinnovate granted a non-exclusive license to IVBP, Pune, valid for ten years, ensuring the vaccine meets market standards.

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